INTERNATIONAL FOUNDATION FORCULTURAL PROPERTY PROTECTION
By William J. Powers III -Director of Facilities at The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, MA.
It is imperative that organizations have a well-written All-Hazard Emergency Response Plan (ERP) in conjunction with an Incident Action Plan (IAP). This document includes a business continuity plan which helps the organization to maintain operations if possible. More than 40% of organizations are forced to close after a major incident. The plan is a living document that should be regularly reviewed and updated, as the process is dynamic and ever-evolving.
A comprehensive security analysis should be performed to help identify any potential risks. A strategy to mitigate such risks should then be developed. Scenario-based thinking will help to prepare and understand the challenges in managing the risks, and allows open-minded thinking to ask questions, such as “If this happens, what can be done?” Training must regularly occur and be consistent and in the right setting. Responders are often placed in difficult situations because the proper training has not been conducted. On-duty responders need training for everyone’s safety.
The four phases of emergency management are preparedness, response, recovery and mitigation—they are the basis for the ERP.* The goal is to end the incident as quickly as possible. The IAP summarizes incident response tasks and instructs personnel on mitigating potential damage. The Incident Response section prepares individual responders by assigning role-specific tasks. The Incident Closure and Debrief sections direct responders on aiding business recovery. Each response follows a step-by-step process—governed by the Incident Command System (ICS)—that will guide responders from incident preparation through incident closure.
A business continuity plan should clearly state in writing the essential functions and goals of the organization. The document should identify and prioritize the systems and protocols to be sustained and provide the necessary information for their maintenance. The ERP and IAP form the framework of incident response. Life safety will always be the highest priority. As the incident concludes, the next important step is to normalize business operations as soon as practical. More than 40% of organizations do not survive a disaster for various reasons.
Businesses having a plan to move forward after a critical event will have a better chance of staying open versus a business with no plan. During an emergency is not the time to determine what can be done and whom to contact. In the planning stages, it is easier to think more clearly and establish contracts and billing rates with vendors, contractors and others if the incident involves more than a single facility.
Community and Regional Resilience Institute (CARRI) is a concept of emergency management that FEMA initiated, and which differs slightly from Incident Command. The entire community is involved in the plan, and the decisions are made by consensus regarding the plan elements. In 2011, this concept was tested in the U.S. through several pilot programs across the country. This process requires resources and support from all local community agencies. The concept of this plan is relativity simple; however, it does become complex as to who has the decision-making authority in the community and how resources are allocated. There are many political governing bodies in this process—all with an interest in seeing it succeed—from the President through the cabinet. The government has made grants available to municipalities. The concept is who is better-equipped to make decisions for the people most impacted. Everyone is familiar with both the process and the local agencies.
The more communities are involved and acquaint themselves with the local agencies, the better and stronger the community becomes. It is similar to community policing—knowledgeable community residents are more willing to share information with law enforcement.
Through Presidential Policy Directive 21 (PPD-21), enacted in February 2013, the National Infrastructure Protection Plan (NIPP) aligns with PPD-8, which addresses national preparedness. These directives help align communications with federal, state, local, tribal, and private sector groups to engage in emergency preparedness. With better communications, everyone working towards common goals, and understanding the fragile nature of critical infrastructure, people are more open to sharing when an incident occurs. The success of this integrated approach depends on leveraging the full spectrum of capabilities, knowledge and experience across the critical infrastructure, community and associated stakeholders. This requires efficient sharing of actionable and relevant information among partners to build situational awareness and enable effective, risk-informed decision-making.
* FEMA: https://training.fema.gov/emiweb/ downloads/is10_unit3.doc
WILLIAM J. POWERS III
William J. Powers is the Director of Facilities at The Sterling and Francine Clark Art Institute in Williamstown, MA. Powers oversees the Facilities, Maintenance and Security Departments of the Clark Art. Powers has over 30 years of experience in cultural property protection, starting at the Berkshire Museum in 1981 and coming to the Clark Art Institute in 1995. In addition to being a member of the Board of Directors for International Foundation for Cultural Property Protection (IFCPP), Powers is the Sergeant at Arms for the IFCPP, as well as a Self-Defense and Use of Force expert. He is a certified instructor through the IFCPP and frequently lectures on cultural property protection at cultural facilities and colleges. He was one of the first IFCPP members to host a Regional CIPS Certification Workshop, and continues to contribute valuable assistance to the Foundation. Along with working with the IFCPP, he serves on the awards committee and is an active member on the Cultural Properties Council for ASIS.
Powers has a Master’s Degree in Administration of Justice and Security. Powers also serves as a Captain with the Berkshire County Sheriff’s Department, Uniform Branch, since 1995. He holds a 6th Degree Black Belt in martial arts and a Master Level Teaching Certificate. He is an active member of several national associations, including ASIS International, the American Association of Museums, the National Fire Protection Association, the New England Museum Association, the Association for Facilities Engineering, and the Museum Association Security Committee.
Reposted from Securitas Security Services, USA, Inc.
According to OSHA statistics, slips, trips and falls (STF) are responsible for the majority of nonfatal occupational injuries nationwide. More than half of these injuries result from falls on level surfaces. Keeping an eye out for potential hazards can help create a safe work environment.
Watch Your StepFalls are among the most preventable types of accidents. Preventing slips, trips and falls begins by paying attention to where you step. Avoid multitasking while walking. Watch for obstacles indoors such as clutter, debris, cords, wires crossing the floor, and open file cabinet drawers. Other potential hazards include unexpected changes in the floor level, such as a step up, loose tiles, protrusions from the floor, buckled or torn carpeting and wet flooring or oily surfaces. Obstacles to watch out for while outdoors include curbs, potholes, cracks in the pavement, dips in terrain, stones or debris, as well as weather-related hazards such as muddy areas, snow-covered obstacles, standing water or ice. If a slippery or uneven surface is unavoidable, walk slowly using short shuffling steps. When coming indoors from inclement weather, remember that your boots or shoes are likely to be slippery and floors might have wet spots, a wet carpet or wet door mats. Always wear shoes with slip resistant soles. Maintain a clear field of vision. Avoid carrying a load that blocks your view and walk in well-lit areas. Turn on the lights before entering a room or dark section of a building. Only run if there is an emergency and use available handrails when going up or down stairs, ramps or inclined surfaces. Do not attempt to take more than one step at a time. Walk around hazards, not over them, or take a different route.
Building a Culture of SafetySafety in the workplace extends beyond preventing falls. Maintaining a safe work environment is the responsibility of every employer and employee. The most successful workplace safety programs require a commitment from the entire company.
Everyone is affected when a person has an accident or is injured on the job. The pain and suffering, work disruptions, lost time injuries, and costs from such incidents can also impact families, co-workers and the company, as well as the injured party. This is why it is important to maintain a culture of safety. Always adhering to safe work habits, and never avoiding or ignoring established safety procedures, is part of everyone’s job. The key to staying safe at work is remembering that safety is no accident. “Think Safety First” before starting any task, no matter how familiar it is. If you see someone acting in an unsafe manner, stop and help them consider the potential consequences of their actions. Assist them by explaining a safer way of performing the task.
Keys to Workplace SafetyMaintaining an attitude of safety is a critical part of staying safe on the job. There are six keys to a good safety attitude that can help develop safer work habits.
For more information on this and other security related topics, visit the Securitas Safety Awareness Knowledge Center at: http://www.securitasinc.com/en/knowledge-center/security-and-safety-awareness-tips
Reposted from Total Security Daily Advisor
An unfortunate emerging issue for employers is the rise of workplace shootings. Even courts and judges have taken note in their judicial opinions that workplace violence is increasing. Of course, employees may be exposed to different degrees of violence at work. Workplace shootings are on the extreme end of the spectrum.
The U.S. Bureau of Labor and Statistics has found that workplace shootings have increased by more than 10% in recent years. As a result, employers should be aware of the risk of workplace shootings and the legal issues involved. You also should adopt a plan and policy to help employees prepare in the event that the worst-case scenario occurs.
Employers have a general duty under the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (OSH Act) to maintain a workplace free from serious recognized hazards. The OSH Act was originally motivated by a desire to cut down on the number of workplace deaths caused by industrial accidents and exposure to unsafe working conditions. But the Act addresses many types of hazards.
But even though workplace violence isn’t specifically mentioned in the OSH Act, you shouldn’t ignore the possibility that a tragedy could occur. Remember that you do have a general duty to take actions to help minimize the risk of workplace violence if you recognize that there is a risk.
An employer breaches its general duty to protect employees from workplace hazards if all four of the following factors are true:
Although OSHA recognizes that employers will not be strictly liable for workplace shootings, it has published voluntary guidelines to help you deal with the emerging issue.
OSHA has noted that employers in certain industries, including healthcare providers, social services agencies, late-night retail establishments, and taxi or car services, are at higher risk for violence against their employees. Of course, employers in those industries aren’t the only ones that could be affected by workplace violence, but they should be particularly aware of the risk.
Additionally, some states have adopted laws that impose a higher burden on employers to prevent workplace violence. A few state laws focus specifically on at-risk industries. For example, a Connecticut law requires certain healthcare providers to adopt a response plan for workplace violence, and a Florida law requires convenience stores to install security devices to help decrease safety risks.
While employees who are victims of workplace violence will likely be required to file workers’ compensation claims, customers may be able to sue an employer for negligence when they sustain injuries due to workplace violence.
Negligence is governed by state law. A victim will need to prove the employer owed him a duty of care and it breached that duty. However, an employer may be able to avoid liability by showing the workplace violence was a superseding cause of the customer’s injury and the violence was unforeseeable.
OSHA has published five recommendations to help employers deal effectively with workplace violence. You should ensure your violence prevention plan and your employee handbook address all five elements:
Having a plan in place could help your employees be more prepared if a violent incident occurs. Knowing where to go, whom to call, and what to do could make a huge difference.
Employers should be aware that workplace violence is an increasing phenomenon and adopt a clear policy that addresses the potential if it happens. Having a plan in place for employees to follow can be critical during an emergency. Your policy should include procedures for notifying emergency responders, management, coworkers, and employees’ families. It also should address preventive measures for recognizing and reporting potential threats of workplace violence before they materialize into something more.
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Reposted from Pinnacol Assurance
Everyone feels stress. We begin each day with a never-ending to-do list — get the kids to school, go to work, make dinner, drive the soccer carpool and, ugh, did the dog just make a mess on the carpet?
But there’s a difference between everyday stress and stressors so significant they contribute to burnout. The World Health Organization classifies burnout as an occupational phenomenon tied to “chronic workplace stress that has not been successfully managed.” Burnout is a serious on-the-job issue that can lower productivity and, even more worrisome, threaten your employees’ safety.
Nearly 1 million people a day miss work due to stress, according to the American Institute of Stress, and employers lose up to $300 billion each year on stress-related health care and absences. Workers exhibiting high stress are 30% more likely to have an accident, and more than 60% of workplace accidents are stress-related.
Anyone can experience burnout, including your highest-achieving, most-engaged workers. It’s alarmingly common. Nearly two-thirds of employees report feeling burned out frequently or sometimes.
Take the time to learn the signs of burnout and the toll it can take on employees and your workplace, then read on to find out how you can manage employee burnout.
Physical signs of burnout include forgetfulness, headaches, dizziness, insomnia and nagging illnesses. Psychological displays of burnout include:
How can you recognize these symptoms of burnout in your employees? Watch for:
Working too much is a recurring trigger for burnout. Other causes range from feeling powerless on the job to insufficient recognition for achievements to monotonous jobs or chaotic workplaces.
Workplace stress may manifest in serious ways. Short- and long-term health consequences for burned-out employees could include:
Burnout also can affect your workers’ efficiency. Quality of work may decline when a person feels disengaged due to burnout. Production can decrease if a stressed-out employee misses deadlines or makes errors.
Burnout may influence workplace dynamics, too. When a co-worker misses a shift, others may feel pressure to pick up unfinished work. Sometimes people even lash out; 29% of workers say they’ve yelled at a co-worker due to stress, according to an Integra survey.
Presenting realistic expectations for your employees and listening to their concerns may ease symptoms of burnout. You can also try these six steps:
Reposted from KSHB Kansas City
A number of sites across Kansas City, Missouri, were vandalized overnight, including the dedication wall at the National WWI Museum and Memorial, police said.
Kansas City police were searching for two suspects after discovering graffiti on the museum's dedication wall at Pershing Road and Main Street just before 1 a.m. Tuesday.
The person who called police told them he saw two people spray paint "Glory to the fallen" on the monument before running away. The spray-painted message referred to a Peruvian prison massacre that occurred 33 years ago on this day.
"This is Kansas City’s front porch," Matt Naylor, President and CEO of the National WWI Museum and Memorial said. "It’s very disappointing to see people would cause damage here to this memorial."
What took the vandals minutes to spray-paint, took hours to cleanup.
"The pigments and the colors, they’re so bold and it really just stands out in any kind of masonry," Stephen Haith, owner of DSG Equipment and Supplies said.
Haith's company and Mid America Metals donated their time and service to get rid of the graffiti.
Across town, so did Ralph Colangelo who used his own paint to cover the vandals message up at the Calvary Temple Church on Saint John Avenue.
"It’s a bad thing, it’s not right to do that to people who are trying to help you with food and clothing and everything else in the community," Colangelo said.
Pastor Wendell Hamilton told 41 Action News the building vandalized is the church's fellowship hall that hosts bible study classes on Wednesday nights.
"If they were trying to bring attention, vandalism overrides what you’re trying to bestow on folks," Hamilton said.
The suspects also defaced a Truman Medical Center Building at 1800 Truman Road.
A spokesperson for the hospital said cleanup will cost nearly $1,000. The vandals also targeted a vacant building at 30th and Prospect, the bathrooms at Concorde park and the Gladstone Blvd bridge nearby.
"There’s always graffiti under that bridge. Always. Whether it’s ‘Manny loves Lola,’ you know we’re going to pay for it either way," Laura Elsen, a KCMO resident said.
This is the second time in four years vandals have targeted the National WWI Museum and Memorial.
"We welcome protesters, we’re a free-speech campus and the tragedy is that they didn’t need to do damage to the memorial to make their point," Naylor said.
KCPD Chief Rick Smith responded the acts of vandalism in a blog post.
"To desecrate the National World War I Memorial and Museum is both illegal and stupid. It insults the tens of thousands of men who gave their lives so that we might continue to have the right to express our political beliefs," Chief Smith wrote in the post.
Chief Smith added detectives have solid leads as they continue to investigate.
Anyone with information regarding these cases of vandalism is asked contact the TIPS Hotline online or call 816-474-TIPS (8477).
from Tyler Freeman, IFCPP Program Manger
I had the privilege of visiting the D-Day Landing Beaches, with my husband, just a week before the 75th Anniversary of that historic day. What an honor it was to be able to witness the build up to the commemoration events happening in the Normandy region.
We were told before we went to Normandy that the people there have not forgotten who it was that liberated their families from the Nazis. That became apparent as soon as we started getting close to the town of Bayeux, which is the perfect base for visiting the landing sites. We were immediately greeted by as many American flags flying along roadsides and in small towns as you would see here in the U.S. on the 4th of July. As well as many Union Jack and Canadian flags. It was an astounding and emotional site to see, especially being in another country.
On June 6, 1944 more than 5,000 ships, 11,000 airplanes and 150,000 soldiers from the United States, Britain and Canada stormed the Nazi-occupied French beaches of Normandy in a surprise attack known as Operation Neptune or D-Day. There were over 209,000 Allied casualties during the entire operation, known as Operation Overlord, of which D-Day was just the beginning. Overlord lasted from June 6 through August 30 and turned the tide of the war.
During our stay in Bayeux we were able to visit many museums and memorials in the area. Starting in the Bayeux itself we visited the Memorial Museum of the Battle of Normandy. The museum is 2,300m² of exhibition space used to present the military operations which took place in the Battle of Normandy during the summer of 1944. It’s a wonderful gateway to the rest of the sites in the area. From there we went to the town of Sainte-Mere Eglise where U.S. paratroopers dropped in during the early morning hours of 6 June. Private John Steele, of the 82nd Airborne Division, was famously caught on the town’s church tower where he hung for two hours pretending to be dead. He was eventually taken prisoner by the Germans but was able to escape and rejoin his unit. There is an effigy of him hanging from the church tower, as well as stained glass windows in the church memorializing the U.S. paratroopers that liberated the town from the Nazis. Also in Sainte-Mere Eglise is The Airborne Museum, which is a French museum dedicated to the memory of paratroopers of the 82nd and 101st Airborne Divisions of the U.S. Army. The museum has more than 10,000 items, including the CG-4 glider and the C-47 Skytrain. This entire part the experience was especially poignant for us because my husband spent the beginning of his military career in the 82nd Airborne.
From there we traveled on to Utah Beach and its museum. The Utah Beach D-Day Museum is built on the beach where the first American troops landed and around the remains of a German concrete bunker. It chronologically recounts the story from initial preparations to the final success with a collection of objects, vehicles and oral histories. It is also home to one of only six remaining original B26 bombers. Outside you can make a very short hike up to a small hill that has several monuments to the military units that participated in the battle.
We then moved on to the cliff top memorial of Pointe du Hoc. It was the highest point between the American sector landings at Utah Beach to the west and Omaha Beach to the east. The German army fortified the area with concrete casemates and gun pits. The cliffs, scaled by the United States Army Ranger Assault Group on the morning of June 6th, 1944, were the only way to infiltrate a German artillery battery that Allied commanders believed could wreck the D-Day invasion. More than a hundred Rangers were killed or wounded during the fighting in and around the guns. There is now a Ranger Monument erected by the French to honor the men that scaled the cliffs.
On the recent 75th Anniversary 100 U.S. Army Rangers reenacted the famous scaling off the cliffs at Pointe du Hoc, one of the most famous missions in Ranger history. Veterans of the actual operation were in attendance to observe the cliff scaling.
We next went to see the Omaha Beach memorial, located on the center of Omaha Beach where the worst of the battles took place. It very difficult to picture now, with its wide beautiful expanse of sand, how horrific the events of that day truly were.
Finally, on our D-Day journey we made our way to the Normandy American Cemetery. This is where the most obvious preparation were already being made for the Anniversary events. Construction of a grandstand was underway, as well as a staging area, many ramps, and what appeared to be roof over the Memorial that was already blocked off. Being there, even with the bustle of construction work, was still an emotional but serene experience. This cemetery, on a beautifully green cliff overlooking Omaha Beach, is where some 9,300 men are buried beneath rows of white headstones. It brings in to very bright light the reality of the casualties of not only that war, but all wars.
On the 75th Anniversary officials estimate that about 12,000 people attended the ceremony at the Normandy American Cemetery. Along with leaders and dignitaries from The U.S., Britain and France, there were also more than 100 WWII veterans there. On June 7, the cemetery commission also rededicated the visitor center, which has been enhanced with updates and new exhibits.
Throughout the summer of 2019, Normandy will continue to celebrate the 75th anniversary of D-Day with many exciting activities. A rich and unprecedented program of events has been put together to bring the memory of this tragic period of history to life, while also emphasizing the spirit of hope. The anniversary will be commemorated with military parades, firework displays, airdrops, picnics, concerts and military camp re-enactments.
Having worked with IFCPP for over three years now, I found myself evaluating the security of each site we visited and couldn’t help but think about what our member’s impressions might be.
Reposted from The New York Times
Dakota Reed’s mind brimmed with thoughts of mass murder. In November, he wrote on Facebook, “I am shooting for 30 Jews.”
The next month, he uploaded a video of himself in his bedroom of his mother’s Seattle-area home proudly displaying new gun sights he had mounted on his AR-15-style semiautomatic rifle. White supremacist propaganda adorned the walls. He said he was “fixing to shoot up” a school.
The F.B.I., which had been investigating the 20-year-old Mr. Reed for about four months, weighed charging him. But federal prosecutors were concerned that the threat was too vague, so the F.B.I. quickly passed the case on to local law enforcement officials, who thought they could build a case under state law. In early December, a detective from the Snohomish County Sheriff’s Office arrested Mr. Reed. He pleaded guilty in May to making bomb threats and was sentenced on Tuesday to a year in jail.
The outcome was typical of the limits the F.B.I. faces investigating domestic terrorism cases, roughly defined as violent acts inside the United States intended to intimidate a part of the population. The First Amendment protects hate speech and other activities that might be early indicators of plans to commit violence, keeping agents from investigating or making arrests in many cases. Agents cannot always rely on federal law, unlike in so-called international terrorism cases where statutes were enacted to address the threat after the Sept. 11 attacks. Instead, the F.B.I. often turns to local prosecutors to charge people they are concerned might be planning domestic attacks.
Now with an increase in such attacks in recent years, particularly racially motivated mass shootings in Charleston, S.C.; Pittsburgh; San Diego; and elsewhere that drew heightened attention, a debate has emerged about whether federal law enforcement, in particular the F.B.I., is sufficiently equipped to tackle the problem using existing laws and resources.
“The rise of white supremacy is an undeniable threat,” said Senator Tim Kaine, Democrat of Virginia, one of several lawmakers who have voiced concerns about the problem. “As the threat of violent white supremacy continues to mount, we must do more.”
Democrats and others have called on President Trump to forcefully disavow racism and urged his administration to address racist violence, a flash point for him since he said there were “very fine people on both sides” after a man who attended a white nationalist rally in Charlottesville, Va., in 2017 drove his car into a crowd of protesters, killing a woman and injuring others.
While Mr. Trump’s critics have accused him of ignoring the growing problem, the White House made fighting domestic terrorism a priority, adding it to the National Strategy for Counterterrorism. But the challenge for federal law enforcement goes deeper than just needing support from the president’s bully pulpit.
A federal statute defines domestic terrorism but carries no penalties. Some former and current law enforcement officials said in interviews that it was time for Congress to pass a new law aimed at people who commit political violence. But civil rights advocates and many in law enforcement worry that such laws would brush up against the First Amendment or invite government overreach.
“Law enforcement needs more effective tools,” said Mary McCord, a former top national security prosecutor who has drafted a proposed statute to criminalize the stockpiling of weapons intended to be used in a domestic terrorist attack. “I recognize the very legitimate concerns of those in the civil rights community, but I would hope that their concerns could be addressed through oversight.”
After nearly two decades where international terrorism cases, chiefly involving Islamic extremism, seized headlines and garnered more arrests, domestic terrorist attacks have overtaken them in recent years both in terms of arrests and killings, Michael C. McGarrity, the F.B.I.’s top counterterrorism agent, told lawmakers last month.
“Individuals affiliated with racially motivated violent extremism are responsible for the most lethal and violent activity,” he said.
According to the F.B.I., violent domestic extremists carried out six attacks in 2018 that killed 17 people. The previous year, Mr. McGarrity said, eight people died in five attacks. Domestic terrorism-related arrests narrowly outpaced international ones for the first two quarters of the current fiscal year, 66 to 63.
The increase in arrests marks something of a return to the 1990s, when the F.B.I. devoted significant resources to infiltrating and dismantling violent white supremacist and right-wing militia organizations from which lethal terrorists like David Lane and Timothy McVeigh emerged.
The F.B.I. shifted course after the Sept. 11 attacks. Congress passed the Patriot Act, granting substantial powers to the government to fight international terrorism, including electronic surveillance and secret access to bank and library records. Federal investigators began frequently using a charge of material support for terrorism to prosecute Islamic terrorism suspects.
Prosecutors rarely used the charge to arrest far-right, anti-government terrorists, who are primarily white. Civil rights advocates and others have argued that current laws unfairly target racial or religious minorities.
Domestic terrorism became an afterthought at the F.B.I., seen as less prestigious than hunting down members of Al Qaeda. The fast track to top jobs meant spending time in one of the bureau’s two sections devoted to fighting international terrorism.
Eventually, the F.B.I. reorganized its domestic terrorism section in 2013 to more closely resemble the way its agents investigated international terrorism, dividing the country into three regions. Officials described the shift as more of a natural evolution than a response to an event. Among those regions, the F.B.I. has seen an uptick in arrests on the West Coast and Great Lakes, part of a recent trend over the past several years that won the attention of counterterrorism officials.
In his congressional hearing, Mr. McGarrity said the F.B.I.’s counterterrorism division allocated about 20 percent of its resources to counter domestic threats. Out of 4,000 open terrorism cases, about 850 are designated as domestic terrorism.
While Ms. McCord and others have advocated tougher laws, some civil rights advocates and former F.B.I. agents worry that, like after Sept. 11, additional powers could lead to abuses. Human rights advocates have criticized aggressive sting operations, the use of informants and other tools that law enforcement officials have used in international terrorism cases. In some cases, the bureau “may have created terrorists out of law-abiding individuals by conducting sting operations that facilitated or invented the target’s willingness to act,” Human Rights Watch wrote in a comprehensive report in 2014.
“Law enforcement agencies already have the investigative and prosecutorial tools they need, and they should prioritize resources and policies to meaningfully address white supremacist violence,” said Hina Shamsi, a national security expert at the American Civil Liberties Union.
Adam Lee, the former top F.B.I. agent in Richmond, Va., does not believe a new statute is necessary. He cited laws against hate crimes and racketeering as well as others as adequate for fighting domestic terrorism. “We can hold those groups and people to account most effectively by using the investigative methods we used to break up the mafia and violent street gangs,” Mr. Lee said.
He was in the job when the Rise Above Movement, a group of violent neo-Nazis from California, descended on Charlottesville in 2017. Federal investigators in Los Angeles were tracking the men before they were charged last fall with conspiracy to riot for attacking counterprotesters in Virginia and across California. But in a blow to prosecutors, a federal judge threw out the anti-riot charges against the men on Monday, saying they were “unconstitutionally overbroad in violation of the First Amendment.”
Federal law enforcement officials have had success targeting suspects in cases involving a dangerous mix of speech and violence — but often only after they have unleashed deadly carnage. The white supremacist Dylann S. Roof, who gunned down nine black churchgoers in Charleston in 2015, was convicted of 33 counts, including hate crimes resulting in death, and ultimately sentenced to death.
The following year, three far-right militia members were convicted in federal court of plotting to blow up an apartment complex in Kansas where Somali Muslims lived. They were sentenced to more than 20 years in prison.
More recently, the F.B.I. in February arrested Lt. Christopher P. Hasson, an officer in the Coast Guard accused of stockpiling guns and drugs. Prosecutors described him as a domestic terrorist and white nationalist who drew up a list of prominent cable news journalists and Democratic politicians to be killed, saying he was on the cusp of turning his “thoughts into action.” His lawyers argue he did nothing wrong and is being punished for “private thoughts.”
Federal prosecutors have also charged 19-year-old John Earnest in the April shooting at a San Diego synagogue that killed one and wounded three. Before the shooting, he posted a manifesto online, an anti-Semitic screed filled with white nationalist conspiracy theories. He faces dozens of hate-crime charges that carry the death penalty.
Without a punishment for domestic terrorism under federal law, it is impossible to say whether prosecutors could have targeted Mr. Reed under it. He matched the elements in what the F.B.I. calls its domestic terrorism “triangle”: an ideology, the threat of violence and a possible crime.
Mr. Reed, who lived with his mother in the Monroe suburb of Seattle, worked at a Fred Meyer superstore and had no criminal history aside from a 2011 citation as a juvenile for “reckless burning.” But his online presence spoke to a young man fascinated with firearms, white supremacist ideology and violence.
After the Anti-Defamation League alerted the F.B.I. to threatening Facebook posts by seven accounts he ran, agents began monitoring his posts last fall. The F.B.I. and local law enforcement grew alarmed when Mr. Reed vowed to “shoot up a school” and displayed an assault rifle in a room covered in extreme-right iconography. His online accounts showed photographs of an arsenal seemingly in his possession, including three AR-15 rifles, two hunting rifles, a pump-action shotgun and at least one handgun.
The authorities decided to intervene, the threat of school shooting too great. When detectives searched Mr. Reed’s room, they seized a dozen firearms.
Mr. Reed told investigators that his menacing posts were only meant to get attention and that he intended only “to hurt people’s feelings,” citing his First Amendment right to reprehensible speech.
Even after he was released on bail, Mr. Reed railed against the government on Facebook, hinting at violence. He was jailed again. He pleaded guilty on May 10, according to a news report, smiling to reporters after he was led away.
Before his client was sentenced on Tuesday, Mr. Reed’s lawyer, Rick Merrill, said Mr. Reed was remorseful. He was not stockpiling weapons — some of which belonged to family members — for an attack, and he never intended to hurt anyone, Mr. Merrill said.
Superior Court Judge Paul W. Thompson disagreed. “I don’t find this was a mistake,” he said. “This was intentional, offensive, hateful actions that I can only conclude were designed to cause fear in the community.”
Reposted from the Boston Herald
The City Council will hold hearings about promoting “diversity and inclusion in Boston’s arts institutions” following an uproar about how black students were treated at the Museum of Fine Arts last month.
“At too many of these important institutions, visitors of color are often viewed with suspicion, treated with contempt, or even taunted with racial epithets,” City Councilor Kim Janey said Wednesday as she introduced a resolution calling for hearings. “This is bigger than any one incident. It is time for us to have a broader conversation on race, inclusion and diversity in the arts.”
MFA spokeswoman Karen Frascona told the Herald that representatives from the museum will attend when there is a hearing, which is still to be scheduled.
Helen Y. Davis Leadership Academy students and teachers said they were met with racist remarks and felt like they were being followed by security during their midweek visit, and reported the incidents to MFA staff, teacher Marvelyne Lamy told the Herald in late May.
After investigating the incident, the museum apologized to the Dorchester school and students. The MFA banned two patrons who administrators said made racist comments.
“These young people left the Museum feeling disrespected, harassed and targeted because of the color of their skin, and that is unacceptable,” MFA Director Matthew Teitelbaum said at the time. “This is a fundamental problem that we will address as an institution, both with immediate steps and long-term commitments. I am deeply saddened that we’ve taken something away from these students that they will never get back.”
“There is no way to definitively confirm or deny what was said or heard in the galleries. Regardless, the MFA is committed to providing additional training for all frontline staff on how to engage with incoming school groups about policies and guidelines,” the museum said.
The museum said it would train guards on patrolling and engaging with visitors, and would provide staff with unconscious bias training. The MFA also said it would hold roundtables on these issues with community members.
Reposted from the AP
Pardeep Singh Kaleka has surveyed the landscape of an America scarred by mass shootings.
Seven years ago, a white supremacist invaded a Sikh temple in Wisconsin and killed six worshippers — among them Kaleka’s father, who died clutching a butter knife he’d grabbed in a desperate attempt to stop the shooter. Now, whenever another gunman bloodies another town, Kaleka posts a supportive message on social media. Then later, either by invitation or on his own initiative, he’ll journey to the community to shore up others who share his pain.
He’s been to Newtown, Connecticut. Charleston, South Carolina. Pittsburgh. “We’ve become kind of a family,” Kaleka says.
It’s true. The unending litany of mass shootings in recent years — the latest, on Friday, leaving 12 dead in Virginia Beach, Virginia — has built an unacknowledged community of heartbreak, touching and warping the lives of untold thousands.
All the survivors, none of them unscathed. The loved ones of the living and dead. Their neighbors, relatives and colleagues. The first responders, the health care workers, the elected officials.
The attacks have changed how America talks, prays and prepares for trouble. Today, the phrases “active shooter” and “shelter in place” need no explanation. A house of worship will have a priest, a rabbi or an imam — and maybe, an armed guard. And more schools are holding “lockdown drills” to prepare students for the possibility of a shooter.
Post-traumatic stress disorder was once largely associated with combat-weary veterans; now some police and firefighters tormented by the memories of the carnage they’ve witnessed are seeking professional help. Healing centers have opened to offer survivors therapy and a place to gather. Support groups of survivors of mass shootings have formed.
Mayors, doctors, police and other leaders who’ve endured these crises are paying it forward — offering comfort, mentoring and guidance to the next town that has to wrestle with the nightmare.
Former Oak Creek Mayor Stephen Scaffidi, who’d been on the job just four months at the time of the 2012 Sikh temple attack, remembers a call that night from the mayor of Aurora, Colorado, where 12 people had been fatally shot at a movie theater less than three weeks earlier. “He gave me the best advice I could ever receive in that moment: ‘Be calm. Reassure your community. And only speak to what you know. Don’t speculate, don’t pretend to be an expert on something that you’re not,’” Scaffidi recalls.
Last year, two days after the fatal shooting of 17 students and staff at Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School, Christine Hunschofsky, mayor of Parkland, Florida, met the mother of a 6-year-old killed at Sandy Hook Elementary School who offered a road map into the future.
“She forewarned me of many of the things that we would encounter,” Hunschofsky recalls. “She said at first it will seem like everyone comes together. Then it seems like a tsunami that hits the community. People become very divided. This is all normal after a mass trauma.”
Three months later, it was Hunschofsky’s turn. She sent a message to the incoming mayor of Santa Fe, Texas, where a school shooting left 10 dead. “She told me this is not going to be the hardest day and harder days are coming,” recalls Mayor Jason Tabor. ”‘Prepare for that.’ She was 100 percent right.”
The two mayors have since become fast friends and Hunschofsky visited Santa Fe. “We’re bonded for life,” Tabor says.
Mass shootings account for a tiny percentage of homicides, but their scale sets them apart. In 1999, the Columbine shooting shocked the nation with its unforgettable images of teens running from the school with their hands up — scenes repeated in other similar attacks years later. Today, the public sees and hears about these events as they unfold, through live-streamed video or tweets.
Each tragedy is horrifying, but the sense of it-can’t-happen-here has worn off.
“We’re a desensitized society,” says Jaclyn Schildkraut, a criminologist at the State University of New York at Oswego.
“There is an element of mass shooting fatigue where we’ve gone from ONE MORE,” she says, her voice rising with exasperation, “to add another one to the list. Everybody immediately goes for the gun argument ... and maybe throw a little mental health in there, but we really don’t have a consistent, prolonged conversation about these events and how to prevent them.”
Studies have offered some hints of their emotional wallop. The National Center for PTSD estimates 28 percent of people who have witnessed a mass shooting develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and about a third develop acute stress disorder.
Laura Wilson, an assistant professor of psychology at the University of Mary Washington in Virginia conducted a meta-analysis — an examination of data from 11 studies of PTSD symptoms among more than 8,000 participants who ranged from those who’d witnessed shootings to those who just lived in the communities in a 20-year period. She found the greater the exposure — someone who was at the scene or who lost a friend or family — the greatest risk of developing PTSD. But, in her work, Wilson has found other factors, too, including previous psychological symptoms and a lack of social support, also played a role in increasing the likelihood.
“Mass shootings are a different type of trauma,” Wilson says. “People are confronted with the idea that bad things can happen to good people. ... Most people have a hard time reconciling the idea that a young, innocent person made the good decision to go to school, was sitting there, learning and was murdered. That does not make sense to us. ... It just rattles us to our core.”
And yet, some people don’t fully appreciate the lasting psychological wounds of those who escaped physical harm.
A study conducted by a University of Nevada-Las Vegas professor after the 2017 Route 91 Harvest Festival shooting that left 58 people dead found PTSD levels for those at the concert remained elevated at least a year later. Most of these people had a friend, family member or co-worker asking — as early as 1½ months after the event — why they were still troubled.
“Almost everyone had someone say, ‘Get over it. Why are you letting this bother you?’” says Stephen Benning, a psychology professor who conducted the research. Those kinds of remarks were associated with increased levels of PTSD, which lasted longer than depression.
April Foreman, a psychologist and board member of the American Association of Suicidology, likens exposure to mass shootings to a flu epidemic that affects the entire community in different ways.
“When we have these mass casualty events it’s like an outbreak of a virus,” she says. “Some people might be immune or not susceptible to that strain. Some people are going to get a little sick, some people are going to be very sick. Some people might have compromised immune systems and if they’re exposed they have a very high risk for life-threatening illness. Suicide is like the extreme outcome.”
In one week in March, two student survivors of the Parkland school shooting killed themselves. Around the same time, the father of a 6-year-old killed girl in Newtown died of an apparent suicide. He had created a foundation in his daughter’s name to support research on violence prevention.
Austin Eubanks, a Columbine student who was shot and watched his best friend die in the school massacre, died last month, possibly of an overdose. He struggled with opioid use after the attack and later became an addiction recovery speaker. A memorial fund established in his name is seeking funds for a trauma-informed program for families and victims of mass violence.
After the Parkland suicides, Hunschofsky says, many people sought mental health help for the first time. “They just told me, ‘I thought I was OK, but after this happened, maybe I’m not. Maybe I do need to talk to someone.’” The community’s wellness center, established after the Parkland shooting, extended its hours.
A similar program, the Resiliency Center of Newtown, is an informal gathering place for those grappling with anxiety, depression and PTSD. Though the school attack occurred 6½ years ago, the center still gets new clients and after every mass shooting, more people stop by.
“Your heart hurts every time a new tragedy happens because you know what those people who are impacted are going to have to go through and what the community is going to go through, and that’s hard,” says Stephanie Cinque, the center’s founder and executive director. “You don’t just get over it and move on.”
In Florida, Orange County Sheriff John Mina, Orlando’s police chief during the 2016 massacre at the Pulse nightclub, realized that when he reached out to law enforcement peers — former chiefs of Aurora and Newtown — afterward. ”’What do you think I should be doing six months, a year from now?” he asked. “They said, ’John, you’re not going to be dealing with this a year. You’re going to be dealing with this five or 10 years. That was like a punch in the gut.”
There were some immediate lessons learned, he says. Among them: improved communications with the fire department and better equipment. After the Pulse shooting, officers were given Kevlar helmets and an extra layer of body armor that will stop rifle rounds.
Mental health debriefings were held six months and a year after the shooting rampage for Orlando officers who went to the nightclub that morning.
Some have reached beyond the department to UCF RESTORES, a clinic at the University of Central Florida that helps trauma victims. It was originally designed to serve the military, but has expanded to include first responders and sexual assault victims, among others.
Deborah Beidel, the clinic’s director, says first responders called to mass shootings face trauma similar to those in combat. About 50 firefighters, police and paramedics who were at Parkland and Pulse have been treated, most in a three-week outpatient program that exposes them to the sounds, smells and sights they encountered that caused their PTSD.
For those inside the Pulse, Beidel says, “the sound of cellphones ringing and ringing and ringing and no one answering them became a trigger for many people. Afterward, any time they heard a cellphone, particularly that Marimba ring on the iPhone, they would have a flashback.”
Beidel says the goal isn’t to make workers forget but to “put that memory in a file where it no longer affects every other aspect of their life, so that they no longer are restricted in what they can do because ... of flashbacks or panic or whatever they might be experiencing.”
Jimmy Reyes, a 35-year-old Orlando firefighter, enrolled in the program about five months after Pulse. He’d been haunted by the memory of tending to more than two dozen bloody, wounded people carried from the club, sprawled over a parking lot, screaming in agony.
After more than four stressful hours caring for the wounded, not knowing who’d live or die, he returned home. As he and his wife watched the TV news, he began sobbing. She held him. “We did the best that we could,” he told her.
Less than a week later, Reyes had a panic attack while working a second job — he was on a safety team in a jet ski race. “I couldn’t breathe,” he says. “I kept telling myself, ‘You’ll be fine. It’ll pass.’” It didn’t. He dreaded another big call at work.
Firefighters, he says, “kind of bury a lot of stuff. It gets put in a file in the back of your head. That’s what I thought this was going to be.”
But it didn’t stay there. He was short-tempered with his family. He had little interest in doing anything but sitting at home. Finally, Reyes decided to seek help.
For three weeks, he relived his experiences, answering questions from a therapist as he told his Pulse story over and over, recalling everything he saw, including one man talking on his cellphone who’d been shot in the head and another critically wounded who asked, “Am I going to die?” At certain points, the therapist would cue up sounds he’d heard — gunshots from inside the club, the wail of the sirens, an explosion.
At first, he says, he cried. By the end of the sessions, he was dry-eyed and calm.
Reyes is better now and remains a firefighter. He never considered quitting. But he’s changed.
“I felt like I was normal before Pulse,” he says. “I was a very happy guy, no problems, no issues with mental health. Now I still deal with depression. I still deal with anxiety. ... I look back at those days. ... June 11th, I was normal. Then June 12th happened. I’m a completely different person.”
So is Las Vegas trauma surgeon Dave MacIntyre.
He talks in a rapid-fire, breathless way about the chaos 19 months after the Route 91 shooting. More than 90 severely injured patients in 113 minutes. He repeats that phrase as if it still hasn’t completely sunk in. After 20 years, he’s now a part-time trauma surgeon looking to get out of the operating room completely. MacIntyre enrolled in January in an executive MBA program for doctors, with plans on becoming a consultant for helping hospitals deal with similar challenges. He’s trying meditation, too.
MacIntyre didn’t realize he had PTSD until an MBA program coach picked up on his symptoms — anxiety, stress, short temper, avoidance. His marriage has suffered. His work, too. “I find it very hard to talk to family members and give them bad news ... much more so than before,” he says.
After the shootings, his hospital brought in therapy dogs and counselors for the staff but not everyone participated. “As physicians we’re not going to want to show weakness. We’re not going to want to go into an auditorium full of people or get on the floor and pet dogs,” he says. “A lot of physicians internalize. You get to the point where it’s unbearable.”
It was different for Brian Murphy. He says he didn’t have any psychological trauma after the shootings at the Sikh temple.
Murphy, the first officer on the scene, was shot 15 times. His face, hands, arms and legs were riddled with bullets. One bullet remains lodged in his skull; another in his throat after slicing one vocal card and paralyzing the other, leaving him with a permanent rasp.
Medically retired from the Oak Creek police department, Murphy completed the master’s degree in criminal justice administration he’d started before he was injured.
He now works for the company that makes the bulletproof vest that stopped three rounds that struck him that August day. He counsels other wounded officers, talking about something deep in his DNA — resiliency.
Murphy gets injections in his throat every three months to stop scar tissue from tightening and has some trouble swallowing, but he has no complaints, noting he was first told he’d never talk or eat on his own. “Once I knew I wasn’t going to die, everything else was butter,” he says.
He credits his family’s support for rebounding. And he refuses to let the shooting dominate his thoughts.
“It’s not like I wake up and say, ‘I can’t believe this happened.’ It’s just life now. I don’t think there’s a tremendous amount of good that comes from looking behind.”
Reposted from Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
Stolen artwork and fake money — artists say it unfortunately comes with the territory of arts festivals.
The Pittsburgh Cultural Trust said it is increasing security measures after a burglar stole thousands of dollars in artwork, jewelry and other items late Saturday from Three Rivers Arts Festival booths in Point State Park. Artists said they also dealt with having to pay close attention to money as several fake $100 bills floated around the first night of the festival on Friday.
“It was like a stab to the chest,” said Alexis Croyle, owner of the Lex Covato brand and participant in the festival. “I’ve been through storms and you will lose a little, but this was the biggest loss I’ve experienced.”
Ms. Croyle, who has participated in the Three Rivers festival for nine years, creates paintings of former presidents with tattoos, as well as illustrations of colorful distorted figures and notable historic individuals. Roughly $1,200 of her paintings was stolen from her booth Saturday night, she said.
“They took [a painting of] Mr. Rogers with tattoos, Tim Burton and Andy Warhol,” Ms. Croyle said. “I’m generally very trusting. But I feel like I have to watch people now.” Her missing Andy Warhol-themed painting is worth $900, she said.
At least four others, including two art dealers, had artwork stolen from their festival booths that night as well.
Chris Jackson, from Chicago, reported the theft of four paintings valued at more than $3,000, including a horse painting and a large version of a Penguins Stanley Cup tribute. The thief, he said, entered his booth by unzipping the back of his tent.
Local photographer Dave DiCello said he had around 150 coasters stolen from his booth, but declined to give further comment.
The thieves appeared to hit several tents that were located a short distance from a security booth, which felt like a “slap in the face,” according to Dan Sullivan, a local glass artist. He said none of his glass necklaces was stolen, but security should monitor the back of tents. People often steal jewelry, he said, so some jewelry artists take down their sets every day and set them up again to prevent theft. He, however, leaves his merchandise up when he leaves for the day.
“It’s hard to take everything down and then reset it up again,” Mr. Sullivan said. “It’s dark at night, so [the thieves] obviously had to be canvassing throughout the day. You just never know who.”
Jake Weiland, manager of Point State Park, said officials can’t provide details regarding how many artists were affected by the thefts because the investigation is ongoing. Commonwealth law enforcement of the Department of Conservation and Natural Resources is probing the incident, he said.
“We will be working with the Cultural Trust and law enforcement through this process,” Mr. Weiland said. “The city of Pittsburgh has been very nice and helpful to work with."
Last weekend’s theft is “highly out of the ordinary,” and the festival always implements 24-hour security through a third-party vendor, according to Robin Elrod, director of communications at the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust. She declined to say which security vendor has been contracted for the festival.
The annual festival hosts around 50,000 people a day, she said.
“Since learning of this activity, we have alerted our on-site staff, volunteers, and security partners in the city to be on special lookout for these acts and have dedicated further resources to security in the Artist Market area,” Ms. Elrod said. “If anyone sees something suspicious in the area, we encourage them to alert our public safety team, which can be reached in the public safety tent at the entrance of Point State Park or by calling 911.”
Several artists said Monday they noticed an increase in security walking around the festival, and they were provided zip ties to help constrain tent zippers. Tents have a zipper in the front and back that artists simply zip closed when they are finished.
Jennifer Float, 47, of Columbus, Ohio, wasn’t affected by the thievery, but said she was disappointed security “wasn’t doing its job.”
“There was a lot happening this weekend,” Ms. Float said, referencing Pride and the arts festival. “It stinks, but we’re all healthy and we’re all safe.”
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